Unit 1 Grammar
Direct Speech and Indirect Speech
(I): statements and questions
Objective To learn and use the direct speech and the indirect speech in statements and questions.
语法讲解建议采用归纳法，如 尽可能多的呈现一些相关例句， 或可让学生从已学课文中找相 应例句，引导学生试着从所观 察到的语言现象中总结出语言 规则和语法规律。
Observe and fill in “I don’t want to set down a series of facts in a diary,” said Anne. direct speech Anne said that she didn’t want to set down a series of facts in a diary. indirect “Does a friend always have speech to be a person?” the writer asks us. direct speech The writer asks us if a friend always indirect has to be a person. speech
What’re the differences between direct speech and indirect speech?
direct speech ◆To report what exactly has been said indirect speech
◆To report what has been said without using the exact words ◆The words usually appear in quotation ◆No quotation marks marks
直接引语 直接引述别人的原话，叫____________; 用自己的话把别人的话陈述出来，叫 _________ 间接引语 。 直接引语通常都用_________ 引号“ ” 括起来，
间接引语在多数情况下都构成一个 宾语从句 ________。
How to change direct speech into indirect speech? a. Change what has been said to an object clause or an infinitive phrase; b. Change personal pronouns; c. Change tenses; d. Change adverbials of time and place; e. Other cases.
b. Change personal pronouns:
He said, “I like it very much.” He said that he liked it very much.
He said to me, “I’ve left my book in your room. He told me that he had left his book in my room. I said to her, “I have done my best.” I told her that I had done my best.
c. The changes of the tenses Direct Indirect Direct Indirect speech speech speech speech Simple Simple Simple Future in present future past the past Past Present Past Past continuous continuous perfect perfect Past Simple Present Past past perfect perfect perfect continuous conPresent Past tinuous perfect perfect
d. Change adverbials of time and place He said, “I lost a key here yesterday.” He said that he had lost a key there the day before/the previous day. “I read the book here a week ago,” Jane said to him. Jane told him that she had read the book there a week before.
Direct speech now today tomorrow yesterday next week
Indirect speech then that day/on Saturday, etc. the next day/the following day/on Tuesday, etc. the day before/the previous day/on Tuesday, etc. the week after/the following week, etc.
the year before/the previous year, etc.
a week ago a week before/a week earlier, etc.
e. Other cases
Direct speech Indirect speech this that
these here those there
He said, “I want this.” He said that he wanted that. She said, “I’ll come here again tonight.”
She said she would go there again that night. May said to Tom, “I’ll bring some photos here to you tomorrow.” May told Tom she would take some photos there to him the next day.
由直接引语转变为间接引语, 下列情 况时态不变:
1. 不变的真理 The teacher said to the students, “Water freezes when the temperature falls below 0℃.” → The teacher told the students that water freezes when the temperature falls below 0℃.
2. 经常的习惯 He said to the doctor, “I smoke two packs every day.” → He told the doctor that he smokes two packs every day. 3. 历史事件 The teacher said, “World War II ended in 1945.” → The teacher said that World War II ended in 1945.
4. 部分情态动词, 如must, ought to, used to, had better等 She said to me, “You must hurry up.” → She said that I must hurry up.
1. 转述他人的陈述→陈述句 He said, “I’m going to Beijing.” → He said that he was going to Beijing. 2. 转述他人的疑问→一般疑问句 He asked, “Are you a teacher?” → He asked me if /whether I was a teacher. 3. 转述他人的问题→特殊疑问句 She said, “What are you doing?” → She asked me what I was doing.
解题步骤: 1. 陈述句: “I don’t like computers,” Sarah said to her friends. Sarah said to her friends that I don’t like computers. she told didn’t
Sarah told her friends that she didn’t like computers.
注意: 当两个或两个以上的宾语从句并 列时, 仅能省略第一个that, 其余的不能 省略。
Tom said (that) there wasn’t any trouble and that he was waiting for his change. Tom said, “There isn’t any trouble and I’m waiting for my change (零钱).”
2. 一般疑问句: Is it easy to improve the condition of the soil? (They asked him) It is easy to improve the condition of the soil. They asked him if it is easy to improve the condition of the soil.
They asked him if it was easy to improve the condition of the soil.
When do you harvest the wheat? (They asked him) you harvest the wheat
They asked him when you harvest the wheat. he harvested harvested
They asked him when he harvested the wheat.
直接引语(变化前) 陈述句 Jane said, “I’m very fond of traveling.”
that引导的名词性从 句 Jane said that she was very fond of traveling.
直接引语(变化前) 一般疑问句 “Is this your asked John.
间接引语(变化后) whether / if引导的名 词性从句
umbrella, Mary?” John asked Mary if
that was her
直接引语(变化前) 特殊疑问句 “Mary, when will 句
you return me the John asked Mary when book?” asked John. she would return him the book.
直接引语(变化前) 主句动词为一般现在 时或现在完成时 She often says, “All men and women are equal under the law.” 间接引语(变化后) 从句动词时态不变 She often says that all men and women are equal under the law.
直接引语(变化前) 主句 引语时态为: 动词
间接引语(变化后) 从句 从句时态变为: 动词
一般现在时 “I know it,” he said.
一般过去时 He said that he knew it.
直接引语(变化前) 主句 动词 为一 般过 去时 引语时态为:
间接引语(变化后) 从句时态变为: 过去进行时 She said she was making coffee for us all.
从句 现在进行时 动词 “I’m 时态 making 相应 coffee for 变化 you all,” she said.
主句 引语时态为: 从句 从句时态变为:
动词 现在完成时 动词 过去完成时 为一 “I have 时态 He said he had 般过 seen her 相应 seen her
去时 before,” said 变化 before. he.
主句 动词 为一 般过 去时
现在完成进 行时 He said, “I have been doing it for hours.”
从句 动词 时态 相应 变化
过去完成进行时 He said he had been doing it for hours.
动词 为一 般过 去时
一般过去时 “I saw her last Monday,” he said.
动词 时态 相应 变化
He said he had
seen her the
直接引语(变化前) 主句 动词 为一 般过 去时 引语时态为: 过去进行时 “I was waiting for Jim,” she said.
间接引语(变化后) 从句 动词 时态 相应 变化 从句时态变为: 过去完成进行时 She said she had been waiting for Jim.
从句时态变为: 从句 动词 时态 相应 变化 过去完成时 Jack asked if I knew Rick had been ill in bed for many days till he died.
主句 动词 为一 般过 去时 过去完成时 “Do you know Rick had been ill in bed for many days till he died?” Jack asked.
直接引语(变化前) 主句 动词 为一 般过 去时
从句 一般将来时 动词 He said, 时态 “We shall 相应 start 变化 tomorrow.”
过去将来时 He said they would start the next day.
Review 1. 直接引语和间接引语的概念。 2. 直接引语和间接引语之间如何 相互转换。 3. 注意人称、时态、指示代词、时 间状语、地点状语和动词的变化。
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Quiz I: Multiple choice 1. Jack said to me, “You look worried today.” Jack told me that ___ worried ___. A. he looked … today B. you look … today C. we looked … that day D. I looked … that day
2. We said to her, “They’re walking through the street now.” We told her that ___ through the street ___. A. we were walking … then B. you are walking … now C .they were walking … then D. they walking … now
3. Mr Black said, “I have walked a long way this week.” Mr Black said that ___ a long way ___. A. I had walked … last week
B. he had walked … that week
C. I walked … last week
D. he has walked … this week
4. The man thought, “I shall take it back tomorrow.” The man thought that ___ take it back ___. A. I shall … tomorrow B. I shall … the next day C. he should … tomorrow D. he would … the next day
5. They said to us, “Are you afraid to leave this house?” They asked us ___ afraid to leave ___ house. A. that were we … this B. that we were … that C. if were we … this D. if we were … that
6. Jane said, “What did he hear about a week ago?” Jane asked ___ about ___.
A. that he heard … a week ago
B. what he had heard … a week before
C. what he had heard … a week ago
D. if he heard … a week ago
7. She asked, “Whose house will he break into next time?” She asked whose house ___ break into ___. A. will he … next time B. would he … the next time C. he would … the next time D. he will … next time
8. Jack said to her, “Where do you spend your holidays?”
Jack asked her where ___ holidays.
A. she spent her B. you spend your
C. she spend her D. you spent your
9. Black asked me, “Why haven’t you left here yet?” Black asked me why ___ yet. A. I hadn’t left there
B. I haven’t left here
C. hadn’t I left there
D. haven’t I left here
10. The teacher asked her, “Does the sun rise in the east?” The teacher asked her ___ the sun ___ in the east. A. if … rise B. if … rises C. whether … rose D. whether did … rise
A) 根据句型及句意将下列直接引语 变为间接引语，每空一词。 1. Alice said, “I've just got a letter
from my father.”
Alice said that _____ she _____ had just
got a letter from ______ her father.
2. Jane asked Dick, “Have you finished writing the report?” Jane asked Dick __________ whether/if ___ he ____ finished writing the report. had _______
3. Mr. Smith said to the girl, “I will come here to see you next Sunday.” Mr. Smith _____ told the girl that ___ he _______ would ___ go there to see ____ her the __________ following Sunday. _____
B) 根据句型及句意将下列间接引语变 为直接引语，每空一词。
1. He told me that a friend in need is a friend indeed. He ____ said ____ to me, “A friend in need ___ is a friend indeed.”
2. She said that she had received a letter two days before. I _________ received a letter She said, “___ two _____ days ____.” ago ____ 3. He asked me whether I liked black tea or green tea. Do ____ you _____ like He asked me, “____ black tea or green tea?”